Why Seniors Don’t Want to Eat & What You Can Do About It
Many seniors are not eating a balanced diet as they age, no matter whether they live on their own, with family or in a senior living facility. Seniors who live alone are at increased risk because there is no one to observe their eating habits. There are many causes for seniors who are under-eating, over-eating or not eating nutritious meals.
By the time he was 97, my father had multiple problems that made it difficult for him to eat a balanced diet. During the last few months of his life, the only thing he ate willingly was strawberry ice cream. The assisted living center he called home provided 3 nutritious meals a day and snacks in between meals on request. They were very accommodating with his diet–limiting sweets and carbs, cutting everything into small pieces and eliminating foods known to be a choking or swallowing hazard. However, unless a family member was there with him at meal time to encourage him to eat or even help to feed him, he rarely ate vegetables and expended most of his energy and appetite on small bites of protein and the ice cream that easily slipped down his throat.
Causes of poor nutrition
Some of Dad’s problems could be similar to what’s causing your elderly loved one to under-eat, over-eat or not eat a balanced diet. Watch for these risks and hazards interfering with a balanced diet, and consider what can be done to prevent or get around them:
- Poor appetite – not motivated to eat: Many seniors’ sense of smell and taste diminish with age. Nothing looks good or tastes good, and often times there’s no one there to direct them toward healthy choices and encourage them to “eat to live.” They often don’t associate what they are eating with how they feel or could feel. They don’t even feel hungry. We continually reminded Dad of the relationship between his diabetes and his need eat in order to increase his energy level.
- Nothing looks good: Especially if someone else is fixing them food they’re not used to, seniors might not recognize the food they’re given and resist trying it. Even when familiar food was cut into small pieces for Dad, he would often say, “What in the world is that?” We would have to tell him before he would try it. When we were growing up, we had a large vegetable garden and ate meat sparingly. But somehow in his later years Dad lost his appetite for anything green and insisted that at his age he shouldn’t have to eat vegetables! Broccoli was the worst!
- Swallowing problems, choking and food aspiration: Just like other parts of our body, throat muscles and valves can wear out and cease to function normally. Food may go only part of the way down and have a hard time getting into the stomach. Problems with the trachea (windpipe) can include narrowing, inflammation and even failure to close while swallowing. Problems with throat muscles and valves can cause food aspiration and choking. Seniors become fearful of eating for fear of choking to death.
- Fatigue—too much effort, lack of eye-hand coordination: Sometimes an elderly person feels too fatigued to get out of bed to eat breakfast, starting a downward cycle of energy loss. Even the act of getting food to the mouth or chewing can seem like too much of an effort, especially when not driven by hunger. Embarrassment over spilling can also be a deterrent.
- Missing or broken teeth/chewing problems: Some seniors have missing or broken teeth that make chewing difficult. Others have dentures, but find them uncomfortable and not as easy to chew with as their original teeth. It may be difficult to get them to brush regularly, but regular trips to the dentist for cleanings and smoothing of rough edges can help.
- Medication side-effects: Sometimes medications can affect appetite or interfere with digestion. Check with the Dr. to rule this out as a cause and to determine what supplements might be helpful.
Strategies to Try:
- A 91-year-old friend of mine likes foods that are spicy or sour. Try adding herbs and spices to food, or try foods that are naturally more flavorful.
- If your loved one lives in a facility and can go out, try taking him or her to a restaurant or to your house for a home-cooked meal—someplace where food is likely to smell and look different. Sometimes we brought in take-out in for Dad. He ate a huge meal at my house on Thanksgiving, but he was too weak to come often.
- A speech therapist can help to diagnose swallowing or aspiration problems. Stretching the trachea or esophagus may help. Swallowing exercises and strategies can sometimes shorten choking episodes. Avoiding foods with crumbs like toast, breading, ground beef or cookies, may eliminate some hazards. A Dr. may prescribe drinking only thickened liquids and cutting food into small pieces. Having a caregiver present at meals to act as a coach can often help. Dad had a hard time remembering the strategies he was taught.
- A glass of juice or a protein drink consumed while still in bed might jumpstart someone without the energy to get up or move to a table. Sometimes help with eating is needed. Soup or stew could be served in a mug, enabling the food to be brought closer to the mouth without spilling. More activity can equal more energy and enhance appetite. An in-house physical therapist can suggest low-stress exercises appropriate to a person’s age and health.
- If your loved one is in a facility, talk with the staff to see what they’ve observed. Join him or her for some meals to see for yourself what is happening. Whole-meal drinks like Boost or Ensure can supplement a diet that is poor in nutrients.
- Hire a home care aide who can shop and cook and sit with your senior during meals. Sometime loneliness or depression can cause a person to not want to eat. Dakota Travel Nurse Home Care provides home health aide services to individuals who need assistance with activities of daily living. Services can be provided as little as one hour per visit or up to 24 hours per day. Home Health Aides can assist with meals and companionship and a whole list of other things.
Call Dakota Travel Nurse Home Care today for a free, in-home evaluation of services needed. 701.663.5373
by Marti Lythgoe, DTN HC Writer/Editor
- Posted in: Caregivers ♦ Causes of poor nutrition in elderly ♦ Dementia ♦ Elderly care ♦ Loneliness ♦ Oral health in Elderly ♦ Seniors & Nutrition
- Tagged: Causes of poor nutrition in elderly, Home Health, Oral health in Elderly, Poor appetite in seniors, Speech therapist for swallowing, swallowing problems in the elderly, Why seniors don't want to eat